The biggest estate on earth: how Aborigines made Australia

From The Conversation:

Fire

Indigenous Australians systematically burnt grasslands to reduce fuel and stop fires raging out of control.
Flickr/pietroizzo

Aboriginal people worked hard to make plants and animals abundant, convenient and predictable.

By distributing plants and associating them in mosaics, then using these to lure and locate animals, Aborigines made Australia as it was in 1788, when Europeans arrived.

Where it suited they worked with the country, accepting or consolidating its character, but if it didn’t suit they changed the country, sometimes dramatically, with fire or no fire.

“No fire” because a conscious decision not to burn also regulates plants and animals. They judged equally what to burn and what not, when, how often, and how hot. They cleared undergrowth, and they put grass on good soil, clearings in dense and open forest, and tree or scrub clumps in grassland.

A common management system can be recognised in enough dispersed places to say that the system was universal – that Australia was,
as the title says, a single estate, and that in this sense Aborigines made Australia.


A history of observation

Observant travellers such as Edward Eyre, Ludwig Leichhardt and Thomas Mitchell reported what Rhys Jones later neatly called “fire-stick farming”: grass burnt in mosaics to reduce fuel and to bring on green pick to lure grazing animals.

From the late 1960s researchers like Duncan Merrilees, Ian Thomas and Eric Rolls revived this insight, and Sylvia Hallam showed conclusively that
Aborigines managed southwest Australia intensively and systematically.

Ted Strehlow, Debbie Rose, Peter Sutton and others offered insights on Aboriginal belief and practice, especially in the centre and north where traditional management survives best.

I learnt too from seeing in the bush how plant responses to fire or no fire declared their history, and from how people like Alfred Howitt, Bill Jackson, Beth Gott, Peter Latz and Daphne Nash related this to Aboriginal management.


Building on these resources

Bushes and trees, as well as grass, were necessarily associated and distributed. Grass eaters seek shelter as well as feed, and feed-shelter associations (“templates”) must be carefully placed so as not to disrupt each other, as this would make target animals unpredictable and the system pointless.

Given how long eucalypts live, templates might take centuries to set up. Each needed several distinct fire regimes, continuously managed and integrated with neighbours, to maintain the necessary conditions for fire-stick farming.

This system could hardly have land boundaries. There could not be a place where it was practised, and next to it a place where it wasn’t. Australia was inevitably a single estate, albeit with many managers.

Two factors blended to entrench this, one ecological, the other religious. Ecologically, once you lay out country variably to suit all other species, you are committed to complex and long-term land management. Aboriginal religious philosophy explained and enforced this, chiefly via totems. All things were responsible for others of its totem and their habitats.

For example, emu people must care for emus and emu habitats, and emus must care for them. There was too a lesser but still strong responsibility to other totems and habitats, ensuring that all things were always under care.

Totems underwrote the ecological arrangement of Australia, creating an entire continent managed under the same Law for similar biodiverse purposes, no matter what the vegetation.

Despite vastly different plant communities, from spinifex to rainforest, from Tasmania to the Kimberleys, there were the same plant patterns – the same relationship between food or medicine plants and shelter plants.


Blinkered to the obvious

Why has it taken so long to see the obvious?

Put simply, farming peoples see differently. Like our draught horses, we wear the blinkers agriculture imposes. Australia is not like the northern Europe from which most early settlers came. Burn Australia’s perennials and they come back green; burn Europe’s annuals and they die.

Again, you can predictably lure and locate Australia’s animals because there were almost no predators, whereas Europe’s many predators scattered prey, so the notion of using fire to locate resources was foreign there.

But above all we don’t see because farmers don’t think like hunter-gatherers. For us “wilderness” lies just beyond our boundaries; for them wilderness does not exist. Fences on the ground make fences in the mind.

Until Europeans came, Australia had no wilderness, and no terra nullius.

Today, amid the wreck of what Aborigines made, there remain relics of their management. They depended not on chance, but on policy. They shaped Australia to ensure continuity, balance, abundance and predictability. All are now in doubt.

In the face of such doubt, so basic and so sweeping, can we really say we are managing our country? Can we really say we are Australian?

Bill Gammage is the author of The Biggest Estate on Earth: How Aborigines made Australia

This article was originally published at The Conversation.
Read the original article.

Indigenous News – Culture

News

Some bird species became extinct after changes to Aboriginal farming (burning country) practices http://bit.ly/hlWli3

A view from overseas on the bridge building over Aboriginal artifacts in Tasmania http://bit.ly/ewtQlV

Uncle Ballangarry, Gumbaynggirr elder, first Aboriginal on Nambucca Shire Council works with Indigenous youth http://bit.ly/ieSsGX

Death and grieving in Indigenous communities but the spirit lives on http://bit.ly/qFe1w1

Scott Harley, the first Indigenous author to win the Miles Franklin award talks of how writing heals http://yhoo.it/nTheKC

Long history with Islam gives Indigenous Australians pride bit.ly/v1UqUB

Native title granted near Mount Dare in northern South Australia http://t.co/GAfsadJw

Damage to the sacred site at Bootu Creek mine http://t.co/f01ivsp2

Adnyamathanha people have raised their own flag at Nepabunna. Listen to the audio for some great stories http://t.co/lgtCYYtQ

Dreamtime stories becoming animations to keep the stories alive http://t.co/adnYPpQq

The Indigenous News Updates are sourced from news and other articles from around the country that I have posted on Twitter.



The categories I use for Indigenous News Updates can be found here.

Image source: OpenClipArt.org, public domain.

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Indigenous News – Culture

News

Brighton bypass approved to be built across the top of a 40,000-year-old Aboriginal heritage site. http://bit.ly/eaq76g through it actually

Engineering work would ensure construction of Tassie bridge will not touch Aboriginal site. http://bit.ly/gX2oX7 untouched? fairies?

Tasmanian govt “release” info doubting Aboriginal site where bridge is to be built is as old as claimed. http://bit.ly/fYlFFt

Aboriginal Employment Strategy to build Aboriginal art gallery, art centre and cafe in Moree http://bit.ly/grJG3E

Newly discovered hominid bred into homo sapiens that migrated to Asia, Melanasia ands Australia http://bit.ly/gOd3Bi

Karl Hampton and Marion Scrymgour face dlimmas as forced to endorse legal system over traditional law in the NT http://bit.ly/gH68VK

Federal Environment Minister provides emergency heritage protection for Indigenous site in Tasmania of Brighton bridge http://bit.ly/fssPku

Huffington Post compares Christmas to Indigenous Seven Sisters story as obtained by American author camping in outback http://huff.to/fE4i4D

Aboriginal Australians sent nearly 300 artworks and objects to Rome for a papal show in 1925 now on display http://nyti.ms/hxSaCz

How can a state govt trumpet its greatest ever expenditure on Aboriginal heritage protection to be a concrete bridge http://bit.ly/e1GJu1

The Indigenous News Updates are sourced from news and other articles from around the country that I have posted on Twitter.



The categories I use for Indigenous News Updates can be found here.

Image source: OpenClipArt.org, public domain.

If you like this post and what else you see on the blog please subscribe by RSS feed (the orange button) or by email. Visit my subscription page.

Stalked Puffball – Podaxis Pistillaris

Well that’s what I think these are. The CSIRO estimate there are 250,000 types of fungi in Australia. 5% of these have been identified.

This ugly looking thing has a much more slender “puff” early on. The Stalked Puffball can be up to 15cm high and inside contains lots of purplish black spores.

It has a number of names depending on the language. Pitjantjantjara ilpatilpata, Western Arrente kwepe-kwepe and Warlpiri ngupu-ngupu
are just a few.

Apparently, though I have never seen it used at all, kids can paint their bodies with the spores or draw pictures. In the old days it was used to darken the white hair in old man’s whiskers! The Warlpiri people further north supposedly use the same spores as a fly repellent.

The stalked puffball has a close relative, Podaxis beringamensis, which only grows on termite mounds. That’s specialisation for you. It was used the same way.

Next time I see one I might have to give it a go.

Click on the pictures gives a bigger image

References
CSIRO Fungi of Australia accessed 31 Dec 2010
Aboriginal Use of Fungi Australian Fungi Website, Australian National Botanic Gardens accessed 31 Dec 2010
Bushfires and BushTucker: Aboriginal Plant Use in Central Australia by Peter Latz. IAD Press

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